Model Tutorial

Memio provides a way to describe Models (classes, properties, methods, etc). Here's a cheat sheet of those:

UML class diagram

In this tutorial, we'll see how to:

  1. Generate a chunk of code (e.g. a single argument)
  2. Generate a standalone collection (e.g. many arguments)
  3. Generate a collection in a Model (e.g. method's arguments)
  4. Example: phpspec's method generation
  5. Generate multiline arguments (e.g. PSR-2 compliant)
  6. Generate visibility, staticness, virtualness, etc...
  7. Generate Constant and default values
  8. Generate Class and Interface
  9. Generate File

1. Generating a chunk of code (e.g. a single argument)

The code sample in the README demonstrates how to generate a complete file. But it is also possible to only generate a chunk of code, like a method's argument.

We can describe it by providing the type and the name:

use Memio\Model\Argument;

$filename = new Argument('string', 'filename');

echo $prettyPrinter->generateCode($filename);

Note: the following types are accepted: string, bool, int, double, callable, resource, array, null, mixed. If something else is given, Memio will consider it as an object.

This should print the following:

string $filename

Memio is able to automatically type hint an argument, when necessary:

$createdAt = new Argument('DateTime', 'createdAt');

echo $prettyPrinter->generateCode($createdAt);

This will result in:

DateTime $createdAt

Note: The following types are type hinted: object, array and callable (only if Memio is ran using PHP >= 5.4).

2. Generating a standalone collection (e.g. many arguments)

An argument on its own is not very usefull, usually methods have a collection of arguments (0 to many). This can be done by using arrays:

$handleArguments = array(
    new Argument('Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request', 'request'),
    (new Argument('int', 'type'))
    (new Argument('bool', 'catch'))

echo $prettyPrinter->generateCode($handleArguments);

With this we'll be able to see in our console:

Request $request, $type = self::MASTER_REQUEST, $catch = true

Note: The following Models can be in a collection: Argument, Constant, Contract (class/interface parents), FullyQualifiedName (use statements), Method and Property.

3. Generating a collection in a Model (e.g. method's arguments)

As explained above, a Method can have a collection of Arguments (0 to many). In order to describe this method, we don't need to prepare an array beforehand:

use Memio\Model\Method;

$handle = (new Method('handle'))
    ->addArgument(new Argument('Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request', 'request'))
    ->addArgument((new Argument('int', 'type'))
    ->addArgument((new Argument('bool', 'catch'))

echo $prettyPrinter->generateCode($handle);

Here's the result:

    public function handle(
        Request $request,
        int $type = self::MASTER_REQUEST,
        bool $catch = true
    ) {

4. Example: phpspec's method generation

When running the test suite, phpspec generates missing methods in your code (amongst many other nice things). To put into practice what we've seen so far, we're going to recreate this feature using Memio:

// Those are the parameters phpspec gathers from the tests
$methodName = '__construct';
$arguments = array(new ArrayObject(), 'Nobody expects the spanish inquisition!');

// Using them we can describe the method to generate
$method = new Method($methodName);
$index = 1;
foreach ($arguments as $argument) {
    $type = is_object($argument) ? get_class($argument) : gettype($argument);
    $argumentName = 'argument'.$index++;
    $method->addArgument(new Argument($type, $argumentName));

// Let's display the generated code in the console
echo $prettyPrinter->generateCode($method);

This would output:

    public function __construct(ArrayObject $argument1, string $argument2)

5. Generating multiline arguments (e.g. PSR-2 compliant)

The PSR-2 Coding Standard advises us to avoid lines longer than 120 characters. Memio takes care of this when generating a method's arguments by checking the length: if it's going to be longer than 80 characters it'll put each arguments on their own line.

Here's a code sample:

$specification = new Method('it_is_a_very_long_method');
for ($i = 1; $i <= 7; $i++) {
    $specification->addArgument(new Argument('mixed', 'argument'.$i));

echo $prettyPrinter->generateCode($specification);

This will output:

    public function it_is_a_very_long_method(
    ) {

6. Generating visibility, staticness, virtualness, etc...

Memio assumes a few things by default:

  • properties are private, not static, not abstract
  • methods are public, not static, not abstract, not final
  • classes are not final, not abstract

This can be customized:

$superObject = (new Object())
    ->makeAbstract() // can be cancelled with removeAbstract()
    ->makeFinal() // can be cancelled with removeFinal()

$publicStaticProperty = (new Property('myProperty'))
    ->makePublic() // also available: makeProtected() and makePrivate()
    ->makeStatic() // can be cancelled with removeStatic()

$superMethod = (new Method('myMethod'))
    ->makeAbstract()  // can be cancelled with removeAbstract()
    ->makeFinal() // can be cancelled with removeFinal()
    ->makePrivate() // also available: makeProtected(), makePublic() and removeVisibility()
    ->makeStatic() // can be cancelled with removeStatic()

7. Generating Constant and default values

A constant or a default value can be many things: a string encapsulated between single or double quotes, an integer, null... Since PHP 5.6 it can even be a numeric or string literal (e.g. __DIR__.'/path').

To allow all of those in the simplest possible way, Memio let us write the raw value that will be printed:

use Memio\Model\Constant;

$firstConstant = new Constant('FIRST_CONSTANT', '"string in double quotes"');
$secondConstant = new Constant('SECOND_CONSTANT', 'null');

echo $prettyPrinter->generateCode($firstConstant);
echo $prettyPrinter->generateCode($secondConstant);

This will output:

    const FIRST_CONSTANT = "string in double quotes";
    const SECOND_CONSTANT = null;

8. Generating Class and Interface

In PHP, class and interface are two reserved keywords. In order to be able to have Models describing those, Memio provides respectively Object and Contract.

Here's an example of interface generation:

use Memio\Model\Contract;

$myMethod = new Method('myMethod')
    ->addArgument('mixed', 'myArgument')
$myContract = (new Contract('Vendor\Project\MyInterface'))
    ->extend(new Contract('Vendor\Project\MyParentInterface'))
    ->addConstant(new Constant('MY_CONSTANT', '42'))

echo $prettyPrinter->generateCode($myContract);

Will output:

interface MyInterface extends MyParentInterface
    const MY_CONSTANT = 42;

    public function myMethod($myArgument);

Objects can extend only one parent, but can implement many interfaces. Contracts can extend many interfaces.

9. Generating File

Finally, we can generate a whole File:

$myFile = (new File('src/Vendor/Project/MyObject'))
    ->setStructure((new Object('Vendor\Project\MyObject'))


This will output:


namespace Vendor\Project;

use Vendor\Project\MyInterface;

class MyObject implements MyInterface
    public function myMethod($myArgument)

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